FOR INTRODUCTION AND PART ONE
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Outline of Text
Synopsis: We first discuss Marx and Engels on nation formation in general;
We then analyse claims that Marx and Engels supported Welsh & Scottish nationalism;
Finally we trace the history of Scotland; to the present day asking whether they still can claim to be nations.
We argue that Marx and Engels recognised only two unequivocal nations in the sceptr’ed Isle – Britain [Sometimes they called it England] and Ireland.
Part One: THE NATIONAL QUESTION ACCORDING TO MARX AND ENGELS
Overall Synopsis: General key concepts on nation formation: Marx and Engels assessed each national claim and movement from the vantage point of the working class. This required an analysis of each national movement’s contribution to the overall political movement of the working class – both nationally and internationally.
i) The Marxist final goal: Formation of a class with one goal – socialism;
Synopsis: Marx and Engels argued that nationalist interests could not distract the working class from their final goal - socialism. But the working class needed to capture national state power as an interim step. They saw the culmination of bourgeois society as "civil society" – a highly centralized state that began to exert an international erosive power on the world’s nationalities.
ii) The Dialectical View of Nations: Some have a future and some have a past; The Case Of German States Taking Over Polish and Bohemian Slavonic lands
Synopsis: Marx and Engels recognised that nations came into being and died. Those that died were absorbed by more vigorous nations. However even when absorbed, remnants would often try to gain national status. In the case of Poland – this was progressive as it eroded both German and Russian imperial absolutism. For other nations – those in the "South Slavonic" grouping, their resort to reactionary alliances such as the Pan-Slavic League dominated by Russia rendered them insupportable. Support to a national struggle was not immediate, but contingent on the overall goals of the international working class.
iii) Workers of one nation, must assess whether a given national struggle furthers the ultimate goals of the international working class
Synopsis: The workers of an oppressing nation must break ranks with their own bourgeoisie and support the struggle of the workers of the oppressed nations. Unless the workers of the oppressing nation do this, they will not be able to free themselves.
Conclusion to Part One: The Legacy to Lenin and Stalin:
BIBLIOGRAPHY TO PART TWO
i) Early Foundation and Early
ii) The Scottish Monarchy – the House of Malcolm II of Canmore
iii) Planting Norman Feudalism Into Scotland
iv) Civic Society Developments - Ecclesiastic Church Reform and the Burghh
v) The Wars of Independence 1286-1371 – William Wallace and Robert Bruce vi) The Calvinist Reformation In Scotland
Synopsis: The Reformation was an essential part of the transition in European societies from feudalism to capitalism. The Roman Catholic Church was a major landholder and supporter of feudalism. It obstructed capitalist changes such as money lending (usury) and scientific investigations. The bourgeoisie therefore opposed it. In some countries the Reformation became an incomplete attack on absolutism, such as the Lutheran Reformation in Germany. In Scotland it adopted a more thorough going change under a Calvinist guise.
vii) The Covenant
viii) The English Revolution, and Its Effects Upon Scotland
ix) The Restoration Monarchy of the Stuarts and "The Glorious Revolution" of William of Orange
x) The "Act of Union 1657" to "The Anglo-Scottish Union" of 1707
xi) The Unity of the Scottish and English Capitalist Classes Accompanied by Working class Unity
xii) The Highland Clearances – Sweeping the Scottish People into Emigration and Industrialisation
CONCLUSIONS TO PART TWO
BIBLIOGRAPHY TO PART TWO