December 2002

MARXIST-LENINIST RESEARCH BUREAU Report No.3; dated 1995.     MIR-SAID SULTAN-GALIYEV* was a Volga Tatar who was born in a village in Bashkiria in 1880. He studied first at the village mekteb (Muslim primary school), and then at the teacher's training college of Kazan. He returned to his native village as a teacher, and then went to Ufa as librarian. From 1911 he contributed articles to many Russian and Tatar periodicals.

    He joined the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in November 1917. The Central Commissariat for Muslim Affairs (Muskom) was created by government decree in January 1918, and later that year Sultan-Galiyev became its Chairman.
    The Central Muslim Military Collegium (CMMC) was formed in April 1918 to direct  Muslim troops fighting on the Red side, and Sultan-Galiyev became its Chairman in December 1918. In 1920 he was promoted to membership of the three-man, Inner Collegium of the Commissariat of Nationalities (Narkomnats), under Stalin as Commissar, and was made co-editor of the Commissariat's official 'Zhizn Natsionalnostei' (The Life of the Nationalities).

    By 1920 Sultan-Galiyev:

    Sultan-Galiev and his followers formed     Marxism-Leninism maintains that, in a colonial-type country, the revolutionary process must go through two successive stages -- that of national-democratic revolution and that of socialist revolution. Marxist-Leninists must support the national-democratic revolution and strive to win leadership of that revolution for the working class and its party, so as to transform it, with the minimum possible interruption, into a socialist revolution that will construct a socialist society.

    Sultan-Galiyevism, on the other hand, put forward the view:

    2) That in areas inhabited by Muslims, the Communist Party must "integrate with Islam":

    In areas inhabited by Muslims, the CP:

    and must accept: 3) The integration of Marxism with Islam should be brouhgt about by a special party:

    Sultan-Galiyev proposed that his programme must be brought about:

4) that geographically large territorial units should be formed embracing as many Muslims as possible:

    Sultan-Galiyev had:     In March 1918, the lst Conference of the Muslim Toilers of Russia in Moscow:     The leadership of the new party, headed by Sultan-Galiyev:     and the new party:     Three months later:     This movement by the 'Sultan-galiyevists' for a separate Muslim Communist Party, came about during the Civil War. In this climate, it was tolerated since a counter-struggle was a distraction:     But as soon as the danger from the Civil War had passed, the Marxist-Leninists connter-moved:     At the lst Congress of Muslim Communists in Moscow in November 1918, Sultan-Galiyev sought confirmation:      But Stalin:     Stalin used the congress:     Thus, the Central Bureau of Muslim Organisations:     In March 1919, the 8th Congress of the RCP(b) established     Immediately after the congress:     At the 2nd Congress of Communist Organisations of the Peoples of the East, held in Moscow in November/December 1919:     These events:     However in October 1919 the Tatar 'national communists':     Although a Bashkir Automonous Soviet Socialist Republic had been established in March 1919, in November 1919, at the Preparatory Conference for the 2nd Congress of Communist Organisations of the Peoples of the East:     The proposed state would embrace both Bashkiria and Tataria and form:     The delegates at the congress:     As proposed by Sultan-Galiyev.
    But in view of the influence of Sultan-Galiyevism in the region:     So in December 1919:     Nevertheless, in March 1920, a delegation of three, including Sultan-Galiyev:     In May 1920 a decree was issued:     In July 1920:     In August 1920 a resolution of the Central Committee of the RCP(b) declared:     Most commentators assume that by this resolution:     In the spring of 1921, Sultan-Galiyev was sent to the Crimea, to report on conditions there. His report, published in May 1921, proposed that a Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic be created. This recommendation was accepted by the Soviet authorities who:     The territory of the Crimean ASSR, was occupied by German forces between 1941 and 1944:     As a result of this mass treason, in May/June 1944, the Crimean Tatars were deported from the Crimea to distant parts of the Soviet Union. And:     Sultan-Galiyev was:     According to Trotsky, Sultan-Galiyev's arrest was initiated by Stalin, with the approval of other leaders, including Kamenev and Zinoviev:     Sultan-Galiyev:     Although at the 4th Conference on the National Republics and Regions held in June 1923 (a few weeks after his arrest), Sultan-Galiyev was accused of 'treason' and participation in 'objectively counter-revolutionary' activity, at this time the full scale of his subversive activity against the Soviet  state was not known. For example, it was not known that in 1920:     On,9-12 June 1923, the 4th Conference of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party with Workers of the National Republics and Regions was held in Moscow:     With Stalin in the Chair, an important item on the agenda of the conference was 'the Sultan-Galiyev Case'. Sultan-Galiyev:     A resolution was adopted on 'the Sultan-Galiyey' case', the principal points of which were:     At the conference, Stalin defended his past support of Sultan-Galiyev:     Stalin tells how, after he had criticised Sultan-Galiyev, the latter:     Despite,this promise, Stalin records,     When, following Sultan-Galiyev's arrest, some Tatar Communists demanded his release on the grounds that the letters concerned in the case were were "forgeries", an investigation was held:     Upon his release, Sultan-Galiyev:     But he continued his deviationist political activity:     He also continued his clandestine subversive activity - he:     This arrest marked     In December 1928,     In February 1921 and again in June 1923, Stalin summed up the role of bourgeois nationalism in the border regions of the Soviet Union:     Sultan-Galiyev:       In 1989, on the eve of the liquidation of the Soviet Union, Sultan-Galiyev remained one of very few early leading members of the Soviet Communist Party not rehabilitated by the revisionists:     Sultan-Galiyevism has attracted support from a number of bourgeois revolutionaries and revisionists in countries outside the Soviet Union.     Chinese revisionism contains theses closely similar to those of Sultan-Galiyevism. Lin Piao* declares: